Estimation of Prolactin and HbA1c among Type 2 Diabetic Male with Retinopathy in Khartoum State

Malaz Salah Abdalla1, Nesrin Abdalla Ahmed2, AbdElkarim A. Abdrabo1, *
1 Department of Clinical Chemistry, Faculty of Medical Laboratory Science, Al-Neelain University, Khartoum, Sudan
2 Mecca Hospital, Khartoum, Sudan



Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the long-term complications of diabetes mellitus (DM) and constitutes the leading cause of blindness in working-age individuals. Prolactin (PRL) is a peptide hormone that is linked with lactation but many studies have demonstrated that PRL could have protective value against DR.


To evaluate the role of prolactin in pathophysiology of DR.


This study is designed to find an association between PRL level and DR. In this case-control study, a total of 300 subjects were recruited to participate in the study, 150 subjects apparently healthy as control group and other 150 patients were diagnosed with type 2 DM who were classified into diabetic patients with DR (75) and diabetic patients without DR (75). Serum PRL was measured by autoanalyzer (TOSOH AIA system), HbA1c was measured by another automated chemical analyzer (Cobas c system). Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 21 using an independent samples T-test and Pearson's correlation.


Independent samples of T-test analysis show a significant decrease in PRL level in the diabetic patients with DR in comparison to the diabetic patients without DR (p˂0.05). Person's correlation revealed that there was an insignificant correlation between PRL level with duration of DM and patients age. These findings suggest that low PRL level might be associated with DR.

Keywords: Diabetic Retinopathy, Prolactin, Vasoinhibin, Sudanese, VEGF, Matrix Metalloproteases.

Abstract Information

Identifiers and Pagination:

Year: 2018
Volume: 08
Publisher Item Identifier: EA-TOCCHEMJ-2018-2

Article History:

Received Date: 29/06/2018
Revision Received Date: 18/10/2018
Acceptance Date: 23/10/2018
Electronic publication date: 1/11/2018
Collection year: 2018

© 2018 Abdalla et al.

open-access license: This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International Public License (CC-BY 4.0), a copy of which is available at: This license permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Correspondence: Address correspondence to this author at the Department of Clinical chemistry, Faculty of Medical Laboratory Science, Al-Neelain University, Khartoum, Sudan; Tel: +249912905847; E-mail: